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Biomass: a promising renewable energy source
2019-04-19 18:35:51
In recent years, China has vigorously promoted the development of biomass energy, and continued to increase investment in biomass power generation, biomass equipment, biomass fuel base construction, biomass heating projects, and biomass waste disposal.

In terms of energy equivalent, biomass energy has become China's fourth largest energy source after coal, oil and natural gas. According to the China Academy of Engineering's China Renewable Energy Development Strategy Research Report, China's clean energy resources with solar energy are 2.148 billion tons of standard coal, of which biomass is 54.5%, twice that of hydropower and 3.5 times that of wind power. And in new energy, biomass is the only renewable carbon source that can be converted into solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels. It can be said that biomass energy is the most promising renewable energy source.

Biomass energy plays a unique role especially in atmospheric management and waste management. China's agricultural pollution has exceeded industrial pollution in an all-round way, which is close to the most important indicator of agricultural pollution in developed countries in the 1980s. In particular, the burning of livestock and poultry manure and straw open field in the aquaculture industry is the most serious pollution to water bodies and the atmosphere. The most effective way to solve this problem is to realize the harmless and resource utilization of organic pollutants through the development of biomass energy.

From a global perspective, the operation mode of biomass polygeneration power generation, bio-natural gas technology, equipment and commercialization has matured, and the scale of the industry is rapidly expanding. However, in China, the attention and recognition of biomass energy is far less than that of wind energy and solar energy. Europe's biomass is the largest branch of renewable energy, with a proportion of up to 60%.

Biomass energy has also been questioned, and it is considered that the economy is not environmentally friendly and environmentally friendly. Compared with traditional energy sources, biomass energy has the disadvantages of scattered distribution, low density, complex composition, and periodicity of production, which increases the difficulty of biomass energy development and makes it difficult to compete with conventional fossil energy in the market. According to a recent report from Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF), biomass energy has attracted more than $126 billion in investment since 2003. Such huge investments are now seemingly more and more “chicken” – or affecting food supplies. Either there is no economic competitiveness at all.

However, the cost of any new product or technology in the initial stage of development must be high, which is related to the level of technology, market share and awareness. The mature utilization of fossil energy is based on more than 200 years of research and accumulation, and the development of biomass energy utilization technology is less than 20 years. We need to give some new things a "tolerance" and room for growth.

From the world trend of fossil energy to clean energy, China has fallen behind in the starting line of biomass energy. Integrating global biomass development and growth of domestic energy demand, low-carbon clean development, renewable and substitution of fossil energy sources, taking into account the recycling of resources, reducing environmental protection, promoting the construction of rural economy and small and medium-sized cities and towns, For farmers and other issues, China should pay more attention to the development of biomass energy than any other country.

First, the supply of biomass raw materials needs to be diversified. It is necessary to get rid of the predicament of "competing food with the people and fighting for food" and using non-grain raw materials to produce biofuels. The most controversial issue in developing biomass is the impact on food supply. Europe proposes that renewable energy should stand at 10% of transportation energy use by 2020, but these fuels must be based on waste or other crops that are not involved in food production. At present, the development of second-generation biomass fuel technology research and development and industrialization has gradually become better in the world, which also puts forward higher requirements for the diversification of biomass raw material supply.

Second, it is necessary to establish a scientific and reasonable collection system. The biggest problem currently facing biomass energy is the difficulty of centralized use, and the cost of recycling and transportation is extremely high. Although the quantity of biomass raw materials in China is huge, the sources are scattered, which is quite different from the western farming farming mode. It is necessary to establish a scientific and reasonable collection system.

The raw materials of biomass fuel are mainly agricultural and forestry wastes, and there are problems of strong seasonality and difficulty in collecting and transporting. The collection of biomass energy requires a “guerrilla warfare”, which can be used to distribute machinery to farmers in order to complete both grain harvesting and straw recovery. In rural areas, biomass energy can be collected in close proximity, used nearby, and dispersed around the radiation mode.

Third, one of the purposes of developing biomass energy is to improve the ecological environment, and it must not be counterproductive. Currently in the suburbs of Beijing, by-products in the production of biomass energy are rarely used effectively. China's annual burning of 150 million tons of straw, the problem of heavy fog in some areas, one of the reasons is burning straw. The reuse (recycling) of engineering by-products cannot be solved in a timely manner, which not only affects the continuous operation of biomass energy projects, but also causes serious secondary pollution to the environment.

Fourth, we must take the road of scale and industrialization. Since China's biomass energy started late, after more than ten years of development, the market players are only some small and medium-sized private enterprises with weak strength. These enterprises are not high in terms of technology, equipment, energy efficiency and profitability. Biomass energy projects The investment and financing channels are also relatively simple. Based on the demand of China's energy-saving and environmental protection and new energy, we should play a circular economy industrial chain, cultivate a biomass gas strategic emerging industry, and form a batch of biomass energy production and processing enterprises armed with independent intellectual property rights, promote scale by industrialization, and accelerate the commercialization of biomass energy.

Fifth, adhere to the line of independent development and introduction, digestion and absorption. China's biomass energy technology research institutions are scattered, lack of professional talents, and technology research and promotion are mainly small and medium-sized enterprises with weak scientific research strength. They are capable of some simple technological transformation and assembly, and they are insufficient powerful once they involve major technological breakthroughs. Combined with the current development of China, we should focus on cultivating gasification and synthetic biofuels, sugar platform conversion bio-oil products, and system integration of bio-natural gas three industrialization technologies and equipment.

Finally, improve the supporting service system and strengthen post management. This is also often overlooked. At present, some biomass energy project operation supporting service systems are generally missing or in the form, local governments put too much energy on project application and construction, but pay insufficient attention to the subsequent operation management and invest less energy. The emission of biomass fuel could have been achieved to be even better than that of a clean natural gas boiler. However, due to unreasonable use and inadequate boiler support, the fuel itself was implicated and affected the industry's reputation. Three points of construction, seven points. The operation of biomass energy projects is closely related to the level of post-management maintenance.
 
(Author: Zhu Yue Ying is a PhD student in Economics Chinese Academy of Social Sciences)
 
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