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Solid waste treatment technology classification
2019-04-19 18:35:51
Incineration treatment   Incineration is a comprehensive treatment process for pyrolysis and deep oxidation of solid waste. The advantage is that a large amount of harmful waste is decomposed and becomes a harmless substance. As the proportion of combustibles in solid waste is gradually increasing, it is an indispensable development trend to use solid waste by incineration. With this treatment method, solid waste occupies less land and has a large amount of treatment. The environment and incineration plants are located in large cities with more than 100,000 people and have energy recovery systems. Due to land shortages in Japan, the incineration method is gradually increasing. The heat energy obtained by the incineration process can be used for power generation. The heat generated by the incinerator can be used for heating by residents to maintain the greenhouse room temperature. At present, Japan and Switzerland annually incinerate more than 65% of municipal waste to regenerate energy. However, the incineration method also has shortcomings, such as large investment, secondary pollution caused by exhaust gas in the incineration process, and serious corrosion of equipment.

Pyrolysis gasification is to heat the organic matter under high temperature without oxygen or anoxic conditions, and decompose it into gas, liquid and solid products. Compared with incineration, pyrolysis is a more promising treatment method, which is remarkable. The advantage is that the capital investment is small, and the gas generated after pyrolysis can be used as fuel.

Biological treatment technology   Biological treatment technology utilizes the decomposition of organic solid waste by microorganisms to make it harmless, which can convert organic solid waste into energy, food, feed and fertilizer. It can also be used to extract metal from waste and waste. It is solidified. The effective technical methods for waste recycling are currently widely used: composting, biogas production, waste cellulose sugar production, waste fiber production feed, and bioleaching.

Curing treatment technology  Curing technology is a harmless treatment process that adds solidified substrate to waste to fix or contain harmful solid waste in inert curing substrate. The treated cured product should have good resistance to permeability. Good mechanical and leaching resistance, dry and wet resistance, freeze-thaw resistance, curing treatment can be divided into sink curing, asphalt curing, glass curing and gel curing according to the curing substrate.

Sorting technology Solid waste sorting is an important means to realize the recycling and reduction of solid waste. The sorting will be fully selected and utilized, and the harmful ones will be fully separated. The other is to discard the different levels of granularity. Separation of matter, the basic principle of sorting is to use the difference in certain aspects of the material to separate it. For example, separation is performed by utilizing magnetic and non-magnetic differences in waste; separation by particle size difference; separation by specific gravity difference. According to different properties, various machines can be designed and manufactured to sort solid waste. The sorting includes manual selection, screening, gravity sorting, magnetic sorting, eddy current sorting, optical sorting, etc.

Crushing technology  In order to reduce the appearance of wastes such as incinerators, landfills, and composting systems, solid waste must be crushed in advance. The waste that has been crushed is not only uniform in size but also in texture due to the elimination of large voids. It is also uniform and compacted during landfilling. There are many methods for crushing solid waste, including impact crushing, shear crushing, crushing, friction crushing, etc., as well as proprietary low-temperature crushing and mixed crushing. A solid waste shredder that is more effective and more effective is a shear crusher. For landfill and composting waste, it is more effective to apply a spiral roller mill.

Compaction technology   compaction is a pretreatment technology that reduces the capacity of waste, reduces transportation costs, and prolongs the life of landfill. Compaction is a commonly used pretreatment method for solid waste, such as automobiles and cans. Plastic bottles and the like are usually firstly compacted, suitable for compacting solid wastes with reduced volume, and should not be compacted. Some wastes that may cause operational problems, such as tar, sludge or liquid materials, are generally not suitable. Compaction treatment.
 
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